Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum 1858a: 9 )


Basionym: Athysanus variegatus Kirschbaum, 1858

Description & Identification

Medium size, robust species. male 3.90—4.50 mm., female 4.10—5.50 mm. (Nielson, 1968)General colour light brown to black with numerous fuscous markings on body. Crown tan with black markings; pronotum tan with numerous somewhat transverse black markings; scutellum with black markings; elytra with numerous black spots bordering cells, veins whitish tan.(Nielson, 1968)Pygofer in lateral aspect nearly twice as long as wide, caudoventral margin produced posteriorly to long, curved, fingerlike lobe; aedeagus in lateral aspect curved, narrow, tubelike, slightly attenuated apically with tiny hooked process at apex, process bifurcate; gonopore subterminal; style in dorsal aspect simple, apex narrowed, small spines on lateral margin of apices; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin concave at middle, small spatulate process arising from base of concavity. (Nielson, 1968)This is the only species in the genus Euscelidius that is a vector.(Nielson 1968)


Biology & Ecology

The biology of this species is not well known in Europe, but some information has been gathered in the United States. In 1952, Ribaut (643) mentioned its presence in uncultivated areas in France without giving specific food plants. In the United States in 1947, DeLong and Severin (195) found nymphs and adult populations in depleted grassy alfalfa fields in California. Adults were collected on celery, common dandelion, endive, lettuce, red beets, Swiss chard, spinach, and Artemisia vulgaris L. Nymphs and adults were found on narrowleaf sage, rosemary, and sweet marjoram. Swenson and Nielson (unpublished data) reared the species on barley in the greenhouse in Oregon. The nymphal stage was completed on diseased aster but not on healthy aster (Severin 1946 [697]). Longevity of adults ranged from 1 to 35 days, but with an average of only 3.5 days. (Nielson, 1968)


Classification

Hemiptera
Auchenorrhyncha
Cicadellidae
Deltocephalinae
Athysanini
Euscelidius
variegatus
(Kirschbaum 1858a: 9 )

Synonymy

Euscelidius irroratus (Scott)
Athysanus variegatus Kirschbaum, 1858
Athysanus doderi Ferrari, 1888
Athysanus maculosus Rey, 1891
Athysanus duplex Rey, 1894

Common Names (full list)

Bunte brachzirpe
Source: Taxon list of Auchenorrhyncha from Germany compiled in the context of the GBOL project

Additional Images

Images provided by GBIF data providers. We cannot verify that identifications are correct.


Worldwide Distribution

It has been recorded from numerous localities in Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and the Western United States. According to Young (1955), the species was introduced into North America and now occurs in California, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Ribaut (1952) examined specimens from Europe, France, Siberia, Caucasia, Azores, and northern Africa. Lindberg (1953) recorded it from the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean subregion. (Nielson,1968)

Africa
Europe
North America

Distribution point data provided by GBIF.

Vector Status

This species is a vector of the western strain of North American aster yellows virus. In 1947, Severin (701) was first to report transmission by this species under the name 'Euscelis maculipennis DeLong and Davidson.” A high percentage of transmission from diseased celery to healthy celery was effected. About 78 percent of males and 76 percent of females transmitted the virus. No transmissions were effected from diseased celery to healthy aster. Males retained the virus from 2 to 59 days and females from 3 to 13 days. The species failed to transmit curly top virus of sugarbeets and Pierce’s disease virus of grape.(Nielson 1968)This species is not considered an important vector in the natural spread of this virus. It should be investigated as a possible vector of European aster yellows.(Nielson 1968)

Plant Diseases

Virus

Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission.

Phytoplasmas

Bressan, A., Larrue, J., Boudon-Padieu, E. 2006. Patterns of phytoplasma-infected and infective Scaphoideus titanus leafhoppers in vineyards with high incidence of Flavescence dorée. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 119: 61-69

Giannotti, J. 1969. Transmission of clover phyllody by a new leafhopper vector, Euscelidius variegatus. Plant Disease Reports, 53: 173

Severin, H.H.P. 1947b. Newly discovered leafhopper vectors of California aster-yellows virus. Hilgardia, 17: 511-524

Jensen, D.D. 1969. Comparative transmission of western X-disease virus by Colladonus montanus, C. geminatus, and a new leafhopper vector, Euscelidius variegatus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 62: 1147-1150

Lherminier, J., Terwisscha van Scheltinga, T., Boudon-Padieu, E., Caudwell, A. 1989. Rapid immunofluorescent detection of the grapevine Flavescence Dorée mycoplasmalike organism in the salivary glands of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus Kbm. Journal of Phytopathology, 125: 353-360

Alma, A., Palermo, S., Boccardo, G., Conti, M. 2001. Transmission of chrysanthemum yellows, a subgroup 16SrI-B phytoplasma, to grapevine by four leafhopper species. Journal of Plant Pathology, 83: 181-187

Palermo, S., Arzone, A., Bosco, D. 2001. Vector-pathogen-host plant relationships of chrysanthemum yellows (CY) phytoplasma and the vector leafhoppers Macrosteles quadripunctulatus and Euscelidius variegatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 99(3): 347-354

Carraro, L., Ferrini, F., Martini, M., Ermacora, P., Loi, N. 2008. A serious epidemic of Stolbur on Celery. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(1): 131-135

Batlle, A., Martínez, M.A., Lavina, A. 2000. Occurrence, distribution and epidemiology of Grapevine Yellows in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106: 811-816

Lavina, A., Sabate, J., Batlle, A. 2006. Spread and transmission of Bois noir phytoplasma in two regions of Spain. In: Proceedings of the 15th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine, Stellenbosch, South Africa. pp. 218–220

* Citations of Phytoplasma occurrance in Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum 1858a: 9 ) have been exctracted from the database of Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant (HPP) biological interactions worldwide (Valeria Trivellone. (2019). Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant dataset (v1.2) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2532738).


GALLERY



TAGS
Africa Athysanini Cicadellidae Deltocephalinae Europe Euscelidius Membracoidea North America
RESOURCES

CITATION
Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum 1858a: 9 ): Wilson M. R. & Turner J. A. 2021. Insect Vectors of Plant Disease. Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales. Available online at http://insectvectors.science/vector/1829. [ Accessed:  04/10/2022 ].
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