Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt)


Published in: Zetterstedt, J.W. (1828a) Ordo III. Hemiptera. Fauna insectorum lapponica. Libraria Schulziana. Hammone. 1: i-xx, 1-563.

Description & Identification

Small, robust species. Length of male 4.20‚ÄĒ4.50 mm., female 4.50‚ÄĒ5.00 mm. (Nielson, 1968)General color bight brown to dark brown. Crown tan with two black spots on anterior margin; pronotum tan with black irregular markings near anterior margin; elytra light brown to dark brown, veins nearly black; color deeper in males.(Nielson, 1968)This species is so similar to scotti that it is difficult to separate on the basis of the genitalia and other characters. In 1964, Wagner (844) separated fuscula from scotti by the shape of the lorum, which is short and broad in the former species. Color variations were evident but not recommended for separating the species. I have followed Wagner (843, 844) after he carefully studied several species in which he concluded that nassatus, nitidula, and rubi were conspecific with fuscula in 1950 and 1964. Beirne in 1954 (56) synonymized tibialis on the basis that it was a color form of fuscula, but Wagner in 1964 (844) synonymized it under scutellata.(Nielson 1968)


Biology & Ecology

The biology of this species is fairly well known. It is common on various kinds of shrubs of the genus Rubus. Raspberry is the preferred host in the Netherlands as evidenced by studies of Fluiter and van der Meer from 1958 (265). Cadman in 1961 (120) indicated that the species was more common on wild and cultivated brambles than on raspberry. Dicker (personal communication) said it was rare on raspberry and common on loganberry in England. It is a pest of loganberry in British Columbia. Studies by Fluiter and van der Meer from 1958 (265) revealed that nymphs collected from raspberry could be reared on wild blackberries, Rubus caesius L., R. macrophyltus Weihe & Nees, and fl. silvaticus Weihe & Nees. The leafhopper passed the winter in the egg stage on wild and cultivated Rubus species. Eggs were laid in bark of young canes and hatched in early or middle May. Young nymphs fed on young shoots, petioles, and leaves. Adults began to appear in late June and populations reached a peak in bate July and early August. Adults were present as late as early October. One generation a year occurred. (Nielson, 1968)


Classification

Hemiptera
Auchenorrhyncha
Cicadellidae
Macropsinae
-
Macropsis
fuscula
(Zetterstedt)

Synonymy

Macropsis nassatus (Germar)
Macropsis rubi (Boheman)
Iassus fruticola fusculus Zetterstedt, 1828
Iassus fusculus Zetterstedt, 1828
Jassus fruticola fusculus Zetterstedt, 1828
Jassus fusculus Zetterstedt, 1828
Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1828)
Pediopsis fruticola fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1828)
Pediopsis nassata Germar, 1831
Bythoscopus nassatus Herrich-Schäffer, 1835
Iassus rubi ss Boheman, 1845
Jassus rubi Boheman, 1845

Common Names (full list)

Frambozecicade
Source: Belgian Species List
Frambozecicade
Source: Checklist Dutch Species Register - Nederlands Soortenregister
Hallonstrit
Source: Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Himbeer-maskenzikade
Source: Taxon list of Auchenorrhyncha from Germany compiled in the context of the GBOL project
Hindbærcikade
Source: National checklist of all species occurring in Denmark

Additional Images

Images provided by GBIF data providers. We cannot verify that identifications are correct.


Worldwide Distribution

This species occurs in Europe and British Columbia, Canada. It is common in the Netherlands (Fluiter and van der Meer 1958 [265]) and England (Cadman 1961 120). Wagner in 1964 (844) reported it from southern Sweden, northern Finland, Spain, Italy, Bulgaria, Ukraine, northern Iraq, Turkistan, and Siberia. In 1954, Beirne (56) determined Specimens collected from Victoria, Lulu Island, British Columbia, which represented the first probable introduction to the North American Continent. (Nielson, 1968)

Europe
Middle East
North America

Distribution point data provided by GBIF.

Vector Status

Economic Crops

Rubus

This species is a vector of rubus stunt virus of several wild and cultivated species of Rubus in the Netherlands and England. Fluiter and van der Meer (264) were first to report transmission of this virus by fuscula in 1953, and this represented one of the first evidences of a leafhopper-borne virus in Europe. Transmission was obtained in field tests where healthy plants were exposed in a virus-infected raspberry planting infested with leafhoppers. Percent transmission varied from 3 to 50. In later tests leafhoppers reared on virus-infected raspberry plants were transferred to healthy plants and allowed to feed from 1 to 21 days. Transmission was effected to 19 out of 105 plants tested. The latent and retention periods were long, but the exact number of days was not determined. Transmission occurred in raspberry fields in July, August, and September when leafhopper populations were greatest.(Nielson 1968)This species is the most important vector in the natural spread of rubus stunt virus in England and the Netherlands.(Nielson 1968)

Plant Diseases

Phytoplasmas

Mitrovic, M., Jovic, J., Cvrkovic, T., Krstic, O., Trkulja, N., Tosevski, I. 2012. Characterisation of a 16SrII phytoplasma strain associated with bushy stunt of hawkweed oxtongue (Picris hieracioides) in south-eastern Serbia and the role of the leafhopper Neoaliturus fenestratus (Deltocephalinae) as a natural vector. European Journal of Palnt Pathology, 134(3): 647-660

de Fluiter, H.J., van der Meer, F.A. 1953. Rubus stunt, a leafhopper-borne virus disease. Tijdschrift over Plantenziekten, 59: 195

Ge, Q., Maixner, M. 2003. Comparative experimental transmission of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas to plants and artificial feeding medium. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine, Locorotondo, Italy, 12‚Äď17 September 2003. pp. 109‚Äď110

* Citations of Phytoplasma occurrance in Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt) have been exctracted from the database of Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant (HPP) biological interactions worldwide (Valeria Trivellone. (2019). Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant dataset (v1.2) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2532738).


GALLERY



TAGS
Cicadellidae Europe Macropsinae Macropsis Membracoidea Middle East North America Rubus
RESOURCES

CITATION
Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt): Wilson M. R. & Turner J. A. 2021. Insect Vectors of Plant Disease. Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales. Available online at http://insectvectors.science/vector/1696. [ Accessed:  04/10/2022 ].
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