Fieberiella florii (Stal 1864b: 67 )

Flor’s leafhopper , Leafhopper , The privet leafhopper

Basionym: Selenocephalus florii Stål, 1864
Published in: Stål, C. (1864b) Hemiptera nonnulla nova vel minus cognita. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. Paris. (Ser. 4). 4, 47–68.

Description & Identification

Large, robust species. Length of male 6.60—7.50 mm., female 7.00—7.40 mm (Nielson, 1968) General color light tan to dark brown with numerous tiny brown and black specks on body. Elytra with dark bands at apex.(Nielson, 1968)Pygofer in lateral aspect about 1% times as long as wide, ventral margin with distinct narrow spine extending dorsad to more than half width of pygofer; 10th segment with distinct bladelike spine projecting ventrad beyond ventral margin of pygofer; aedeagus in lateral aspect broad medially, shaft curved laterally, tubelike and narrow, shaft with numerous minute spines; gonopore subterminal; style in dorsal aspect simple, with distal half curved laterally; female 7th sternum in ventral aspect with lateral margins convex, caudal margin broadly and shallowly excavated with small notch at middle. (Nielson, 1968)This is the only species of the genus Fieberiella that is a vector of a phytoplasma. Further elucidations of the genitalia were presented by DeLong and Severin in 1947 (195) and Dlabola in 1965 (210). (Nielson 1968)


Biology & Ecology

The biology of this species is not well known. In California the species was taken on several ornamentals, such as California privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium llassk.), a hedge (L. vulgare fma. nanum Rehd.) classic myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), and Cotoneaster pannosa Franch. (DeLong and Severin, 195). Beirne (58) reported it from plum, currant, sour cherry, privet, and spirea in Canada. Wolfe (866) found it on succulent shoots of sweet cherry trees, alfalfa, and ornamental plants and shrubs in Washington. Nielson and Kaloostian (568) trapped the species in cherry and peach orchards. Jensen (896) found young nymphs on sweetclover growing adjacent to trunks of peach trees. The nymphs moved up into the trees as the clover plants dried up. I have collected numerous adults on privet and pyracantha shrubs in the fall in Arizona.In 1956, Beirne (58) found eggs of the species in rootstock of plum imported from France. The life cycle is very long as evidenced by Wolfe’s 1955 (866) report that nymphs (Nielson, 1968)


Classification

Hemiptera
Auchenorrhyncha
Cicadellidae
Deltocephalinae
Fieberiellini
Fieberiella
florii
(Stal 1864b: 67 )

Synonymy

Fieberia florii (Stål, 1864)
Fieberiella flori (Stål, 1864)
Selenocephalus flori Stål, 1864
Selenocephalus florii Stål, 1864
Phlepsius atropunctatus DeLong, 1923

Common Names (full list)

Flor’s leafhopper
Source: Catalogue of Life Checklist
Flor’s leafhopper
Source: Catalogue of Life Checklist
Leafhopper
Source: Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - United States (Contiguous)
Südliche strauchzirpe
Source: Taxon list of Auchenorrhyncha from Germany compiled in the context of the GBOL project
The privet leafhopper
Source: Catalogue of Life Checklist
The privet leafhopper
Source: Catalogue of Life Checklist

Additional Images

Images provided by GBIF data providers. We cannot verify that identifications are correct.


Worldwide Distribution

europe ..... north america (introduced)

Europe
North America

Distribution point data provided by GBIF.

Vector Status

Economic Crops

Peach

This species is a vector of the western strain of North American aster yellows virus, western X-disease virus of peach, and eastern X-disease virus of peach. Severin, in 1947, (701, 703) was first to report this species as a vector by demonstrating transmission of the western strain of aster yellows virus from diseased celery to healthy celery. The insects were fed on infected celery for 10 days, after which they infected from 18 to 44 percent of healthy plants. Transmission of western X-virus was first reported by Anthon and Wolfe in 1951 (8) from peach to peach and from cherry to peach. Three of 14 test plants were infected with the virus. In 1955, Wolfe (864) demonstrated transmission of the virus using nymphs, which involved third, fourth, and fifth instar. The nymphs acquired the virus and transmitted it in the adult stage. Eight of 54 peach test plants were infected with nymphs, which fed from 35 to 100 days on diseased peach.In 1957, Jensen (396) transmitted yellow leaf roll virus of peach, a severe strain of the western X-virus complex. Transmission was accomplished from infected peach to 40 of 41 celery plants and to 8 of 30 peach trees. Celery was much more susceptible to the virus than peach trees. Virus retention in the insect was recorded as long as 63 days.Transmission of eastern X-disease virus of peach was first demonstrated by Gilmer and McEwen in 1958 (315). The virus was transmitted from infected chokecherry seedlings to periwinkle (Vinca rosea L.) after a 5- to 10-day acquisition feeding period on infected plants. Insects were allowed to feed for 25 days on test plants. The virus was also transmitted from periwinkle to periwinkle and from periwinkle to peach by nymphs and adults.(Nielson 1968)This species is an important vector of these viruses and possibly of greater economic importance in the natural spread of yellow leaf roll virus in California. Its importance as a vector of aster yellows virus in California is incidental.(Nielson 1968)

Plant Diseases

Phytoplasmas

Krczal, G., Krczal, H., Kunze, L. 1989. Fieberiella florii (Stal), a vector of apple proliferation agent. XIVth International Symposium on fruit tree virus diseases, Salonika, Greece, June 12-18, 1988, Acta Horticulturae (Wageningen), 235: 99-106

Lee, I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal, D.E., Bertaccini, A. 1998. Phytoplasma: Ecology and Genomic Diversity. Phytopathology, 88(12): 1359-1366

Anthon, E.W., Wolfe, H.R. 1951. Additional insect vectors of western X-disease. Plant Disease Reports, 35: 245-246

Lee, I.-M., Gundersen-Rindal, D.E., Bertaccini, A. 1998. Phytoplasma: Ecology and Genomic Diversity. Phytopathology, 88(12): 1359-1366

Gilmer, R.M., Palmiter, D.H., Schaefers, G.A., McEwen, F.L. 1966. Leafhopper transmission of X-disease virus of stone fruits in New York. New York State Agricultural Experiment (Geneva) Bulletin, 813: 22

Bressan, A., Larrue, J., Boudon-Padieu, E. 2006. Patterns of phytoplasma-infected and infective Scaphoideus titanus leafhoppers in vineyards with high incidence of Flavescence dorée. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 119: 61-69

Chireceanu, C., Cieslinska, M. 2013. Molecular characterization of `Candidatus Phytoplasma mali` and `Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri` isolates from Romania. In: Abstract Book of COST Action FA0807, Integrated Management of Phytoplasma Epidemics in different crop systems. Final Meeting, Portugal, Lisbon, 2013, pp. 33-34

Hill, G.T., Sinclair, W.A. 2000. Taxa of leafhoppers carrying phytoplasmas as sites of ash yellows occurrence in New York State. Plant Disease, 84: 134-138

Blomquist, C.L., Kirkpatrick, B.C. 2002. Identification of phytoplasma taxa and insect vectors of peach yellow leaf roll disease in California. Plant Disease, 86: 759: 763

* Citations of Phytoplasma occurrance in Fieberiella florii (Stal 1864b: 67 ) have been exctracted from the database of Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant (HPP) biological interactions worldwide (Valeria Trivellone. (2019). Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant dataset (v1.2) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2532738).


GALLERY



TAGS
Cicadellidae Deltocephalinae Europe Fieberiella Fieberiellini Membracoidea North America Peach
RESOURCES

CITATION
Fieberiella florii (Stal 1864b: 67 ): Wilson M. R. & Turner J. A. 2021. Insect Vectors of Plant Disease. Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales. Available online at http://insectvectors.science/vector/1689. [ Accessed:  04/10/2022 ].
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