Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285)

Basionym: Proconia confluens Uhler, 1861
Published in: Uhler, P.R. (1861b) Descriptions of four species of Hemiptera collected by the North-Western Boundary Survey. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13, 284–286.

Description & Identification

Medium size, slightly robust species. Length of male 5.80—6.40 mm., female 6.40—6.60 mm. (Nielson, 1968) General color brown. Crown light brown with dark markings; pronotum brown with dark patches posteriorly; elytra brown.(Nielson, 1968)Pygofer in lateral aspect nearly twice as long as wide, caucial margin triangularly convex; aedeagus in lateral aspect with shaft short, broad, asymmetrical; aedeagal processes broad, triangulate distally; paraphyses asymmetrical; style in dorsal aspect simple, distal half elongate, curved laterally at apex; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin distinctly convex. (Nielson, 1968)This species is closely related to dolobrata and is difficult to separate on the basis of the male genitalia. The aedeagus of confluens in lateral aspect has a broader shaft and the apex of the style is curved laterally in dorsal aspect. (Nielson 1968)

Biology & Ecology

The biology of this species is fairly well known. The host plant is willow (Salix spp.). I have collected numerous specimens from willow at Bountiful, Utah, and The Dalles, Oreg. It has also been taken from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), alfalfa, sweet cherry, Sour cherry, chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. demissa (Torr. & Gray) Torr.), peach, apple, bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata (Hook.) Eaton), sticky laurel (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl. ex Hook.), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), antelope bush (Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC.), and grass in Washington (Wolfe 1955 [866]).Wolfe (866) reported in 1955 that it overwintered in Washington as adults in leaves and trash under trees and bushes. Mating took place in the spring and eggs were laid in willow leaves. Nymphs appeared in May and reached the adult stage in late July. In Utah, Kaloostian and Nielson (unpublished data) collected excised stems of willow in early spring and placed them in jars of water to leaf. Nymphs emerged from the stems near the leaf axils from eggs that were apparently laid the previous fall. These data suggested that the species overwintered in the egg stage in Utah. (Nielson, 1968)


(Uhler 1861b: 285)


Cicadella confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Cicadella hieroglyphica confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Keonolla confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Neokolla confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Proconia confluens Uhler, 1861
Tettigonia hieroglyphica confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Tettigoniella confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Tettigoniella hieroglyphica confluens (Uhler, 1861)
Neokolla confluens pacifica DeLong & Severin, 1949
Keonolla confluens surcula DeLong & Currie, 1960

Additional Images

Images provided by GBIF data providers. We cannot verify that identifications are correct.

Worldwide Distribution

United States, Canada

North America

Distribution point data provided by GBIF.

Vector Status

Economic Crops


This species is a vector of western X-disease virus of peach. Anthon and Wolfe (8) first reported in 1951 transmission of this virus from peach to peach by adults. Since the vector is primarily a xylem feeder and the virus is largely present in the phloem, transmission was difficult to obtain. Transmission of the virus by nymphs was negative (Wolfe 1955 [864]).(Nielson 1968)This species is not considered an important Vector of western X-disease virus of peach.(Nielson 1968)

Plant Diseases


Redak et. al., 2004.

The Biology of Xylem Fluid-Feeding Insect Vectors Of Xylella fastidiosa and Their Relation to Disease Epidemiology

EFSA, 2019.

Pest categorisation of non-EU Cicadomorpha vectors of Xylella spp.


Redak et. al., 2004.

The Biology of Xylem Fluid-Feeding Insect Vectors Of Xylella fastidiosa and Their Relation to Disease Epidemiology


Redak et. al., 2004.

The Biology of Xylem Fluid-Feeding Insect Vectors Of Xylella fastidiosa and Their Relation to Disease Epidemiology


Anthon, E.W., Wolfe, H.R. 1951. Additional insect vectors of western X-disease. Plant Disease Reports, 35: 245-246

Gilmer, R.M., Blodgett, E.C. 1976. Virus diseases and non-infectious disorders of stone fruits in North America. United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 437, pp. 145–155

* Citations of Phytoplasma occurrance in Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285) have been exctracted from the database of Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant (HPP) biological interactions worldwide (Valeria Trivellone. (2019). Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant dataset (v1.2) [Data set]. Zenodo.


Cicadellidae Cicadellinae Cicadellinii Grape Graphocephala Membracoidea North America Other Peach Alfalfa dwarf disease (AD) Almond leaf scorch Pierce's disease Xylella fastidiosa

Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285): Wilson M. R. & Turner J. A. 2021. Insect Vectors of Plant Disease. Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales. Available online at [ Accessed:  07/12/2022 ].
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