Aphrodes bicincta (Schrank 1776)


Basionym: Cicada bicincta Schrank, 1776
Published in: Schrank, F.von P. (1776a) Cicada. In Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte. Gebrüder Beith, Augsburg. pp. 73–78.

Description & Identification

Medium size, robust species.male 5.40—5.90 mm., female 6.80—7.30 mm. (Nielson, 1968)General color light brown to dark brown. Crown with dark triangular markings on either side of middle, basal half light cream in male; pronotum light cream; elytra light brown to dark brown, Veins white to cream; female uniformly light tan to light brown.(Nielson, 1968)Pygofer in lateral aspect slightly wider than bong, caudab margin broadly convex, caudal submargin with footlike process directed ventrad, elongated and curved subapicably, small triangular projection on middle of caudal submargin; aedeagus in lateral aspect recurved, shaft tubelike, with two pairs of short processes on middle of shaft, directed cephalad, lateral margins of shaft finely serrate apically in ventral aspect; gonopore large on ventral surface; style in dorsal aspect extremely long; apical half curved laterably, coarsely rugubose on apical half along inner margin; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin shallowly concave (Nielson, 1968)This species, related to albifrons, can be distinguished by the aedeagus with the distal pair of spines near the middle of the shaft and serrate margins on the distal end of the shaft.(Nielson 1968)

Biology & Ecology

Information on the biology of this species is widely scattered in the literature under numerous names. Therefore, it appears best to restrict such data to publications as they relate to transmission of plant viruses. The species is a polyphagous feeder, but is most prevalent on clover, lucerne, and potato. It was reared in the laboratory and field on clover (Trifolium rep ens L.) by Misiga et al. in 1960 (527), Valenta et al. in 1961 (810), Chiykowski in 1962 and 1962 (135, 136), and Posnette and Ellenberger in 1963 (623). Chiykowski in 1961 and 1962 (134, 136) collected populations on strawberry in Canada. According to Saringer in 1961 (658), the species overwintered in the egg stage in Hungary. It has been found in most of the major ecological areas of Hungary (Saringer 1961), [658] and Czechoslovakia (Musil 1959), [543]. Adults were most prevalent during July and September. (Nielson, 1968)


(Schrank 1776)


Acocephalus rusticus (Fabricius, 1775)
Acocephalus bicinctus (Schrank, 1776)
Acocephalus nervosus (Schrank, 1781)
Acocephalus striatus (Fabricius, 1787)
Acocephalus strialellus (Fabricius, 1794)
Acucephalus cardui sparsus Curtis, 1836
Acocephalus polystolus fasciatus Curtis, 1836
Acocephalus pulcerulenta (Curtis, 1837)
Acucephalus adustus Hardy, 1850
Acucephalus bicinctus Curtis, 1862
Acocephalus obtusifrons Kirschbaum, 1868
Acocephalus nervosa obtusifrons Kirschbaum, 1868
Acocephalus striatus obtusifrons Kirschbaum, 1868
Acocephalus nervosa signifrons Rey, 1894
Acocephalus striatus signifrons Rey, 1894
Acucephalus aestuarinus Edwards, 1908
Acocephalus aestuarinus Edwards, 1908
Acocephalus nervosus brevior Melichar, 1914
Acocephalus nervosus alpinus Prohaska, 1923
Acocephalus meratii Ribaut, 1952

Common Names (full list)

Source: Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - United States (Contiguous) (ver.2.0, 2022)
Source: Taxon list of Auchenorrhyncha from Germany compiled in the context of the GBOL project

Additional Images

Images provided by GBIF data providers. We cannot verify that identifications are correct.

Worldwide Distribution

This species has been recorded from Canada, the United States, Europe, and Russia. Under the name 'costata,” Beirne in 1954 and 1956 (57, 58) reported wide distribution across the southern Provinces of Canada. Oman in1949 (588) also reported 'costata” from the Northeastern and Northwestern United States. Apparently it does not occur in the Southern United States. The extent of its Palearctic distribution is not known, but Ribaut in 1952 (643), Dlabola in 1954 (207), and Emeljanov in 1964 (231) have recorded it from France, Czechoslovakia, and Russia, respectively. (Nielson, 1968)

North America

Distribution point data provided by GBIF.

Vector Status

Economic Crops


This species is a vector of stolbur virus in Europe, European aster yellows virus, clover stunt virus in Czechosbovakia, and clover phyllody Virus in Europe and Canada. All viruses are considered to be distinct. Transmission of stolbur virus by this species was first reported by Bréák in 1954 (108) and Blattfly et al. in 1954 (95) in Czechoslovakia. Confirmation was reported by Musil and Valenta in 1958 (553), Bovey in 1957 (105), Evenhuis in 1958 (243), Musil in 1960 (545), and Valenta et al. in 1961 (810). In the early work (Break 1954) [108] transmission of the Virus from diseased tomato to healthy tomato and tobacco was obtained. The leafhoppers were fed for 1 day on the Virus source and 3 to 6 days on healthy plants. Four tobacco and one tomato among 90 test plants were infected. Both nymphs and adults transmitted the virus. Valenta et al. in 1961 (810) reported the latent period as 1 to 2 months in the vector. Transmission of European aster yellows was first reported by Heinze and Kunze in 1955 (346) in Germany. Aster and Vinca rosea L. were infected. Clover stunt Virus was transmitted to clover in tests in Czechoslovakia (Musil 1960) [545]. This Virus is considered distinct from but closely related to clover phyllody. Transmission of clover phyllody Virus was first reported by Evenhuis in 1958 (243) and confirmed by Musil and Valenta in 1958 (553), Misiga et al. in 1960 (527), Chiykowski in 1962 and 1962 (135, 136), and Posnette and Ellenberger in 1963 (623). This virus infects clover and strawberry among other plants and is the same virus that causes green petal of strawberry (Chiykowski 1962) [136]. The acquisition period of phyllody virus was about 4 days and the latent period in the vector about 6 to 7 weeks (Evenhuis 1958) [243]. After a 7-day acquisition feeding period followed by a latent period of 5 weeks, this species was able to transmit the virus causing 'green petal” from strawberry to strawberry and clover (Posnette and Eblenberger 1963) [623]. Chiykowski in 1962 (136) reported a 7-to 9-day acquisition feeding period and a 20- to 30-day latent period in transmitting phyllody virus from clover to strawberry and from strawberry to clover.(Nielson 1968)This species is considered an important vector in the natural spread of phyllody virus to strawberry. It is not so important as other species of leafhoppers in the spread of other viruses affecting clover, aster, and other plants.(Nielson 1968)

Plant Diseases